vendredi 3 juin 2011

Amazigh Names for Boys

Amazigh Names for Boys

Afra: Peace

Afulay: Apuleius, Berber writer (died around 180 AD). Author of the novel The Golden ***.

Agafay: Named for a locality. Region of Morocco known for the beauty of its women

Agerzam: Cheetah (hunting leopard)

Aghbalu: Spring (source)

Aghilas: Leopard, Panther, the big cat

Agizul: Brave, courageous

Agwectim: Named for a locality

Agwilal: Stork (male)

Agwillul: Named for an ethnicity

Agwmar: Stallion

Aheyyâd: Artist, wanderer

Ajeddig: Flower

Akensus: Named for an ethnicity

Akersim: Caracal (Desert Lynx)

Aksim: Named for an ethnicity

Amalu: Shadow, shade

Amanar: Orion (the constellation)

Amaynu: New, innovator

Amayyas: Cheetah (hunting leopard)

Amazigh: Freeman (the Berber)

Amazzal: Dedicated, devoted, emissary

Amenzu: The first one, the oldest

Ameqran: Eldest

Amesggin: Named for an ethnicity

Amessan: Learned one, wise

Amestan: Protector, defender

Amezwar: Leader, guide

Amêzyan: Middle child, youngest

Amnay: Rider

Amzîn: Middle child, youngest

Anamar: Happy, blessed

Anaruz: Hope

Anazâr: Challenge, defiant one, rebel, daring

Anebdad :Pillar, support

Angad: Named for a locality (Ujda region, Morocco)

Anir: Angel

Antalas: Amazigh chief (of today’s Tunisia) who led a rebellion against Justinian I, the Byzantine Emperor. Killed in battle in 547 AD.

Asafar: Remedy

Asafu: Torch

Asfru: The poem, the ode

Aslal: Honey Light

Asmun: Companion

Asulil: Rock

Atbir: Dove

Atrar: Modern

Awreb: Thus the Aureba, Berber tribe mentioned by Ibn Khaldun

Awsim: Gazelle’s fawn

Awzal: Named for an ethnicity

Aylal: Bird

Aylimas: Amazigh king whose authority reached Eastern Numidia

Ayrad: Lion (see "Irat")

Ayyur: Moon

Azayku: Ancestral, of the ancestors, ancient one,

Azêllay: Pendant

Azenkwed: The gazelle (male)

Azenzêr: Sunray, Sunshine

Azerwal: The man with blue eyes

Aziki: Named for an ethnicity

Aznag: Descendant of Iznagen (id: Ibn Khaldoun)

Azrur: Handsome

Azûlay: The man with nice eyes

Badis: Name of several Amazigh kings, the most notable was Badis " the Hammadit "

Bukkus: King of Mauretania (about 110 B.C.), and father-inlaw of Yugerten (Jugurtha)

Cucunq / Cicungh: Mentioned in the Bible as Sheshonq I, Amazigh king of Libya, founder of the XXII dynasty. According to some sources he ruled over Egypt from 950 to 929 BC.

Gaya: Amazigh king, died around 208 BC. Father of Massinissa, Son of Zelalsan and brother of Ulzasen

Gulusa: Son of Massinissa and father of Massiwa

Gwafa: Son of the Summit

Gwasila: Son of the Plain

Idder: Alive, lively

Idir: Alive, lively

Idus: The mighty, the strong

Igider: The Eagle

Ikken Common name, meaning unknown

Ilatig Worthy

Ilayetmas He has brothers

Irat Lion (see "ayrad")

Isul Alive, lively

Itri Star

Izdârasen The mighty, the strong

Izem Lion

Izemrasen The mighty, the strong

Izîl The sublime, the magnificent

Izri Common name, unknown origin

Masinissa Also Massinissa, Latin form of Massensen, Berber king (202-148 BC)

Mass Term of respect such as Sir

Massensen Masinissa

Massin Nickname for Massinissa

Maysar Water bearer who became chief of the Ghomara, Berghwata and Miknasa tribes’ coalition and lead a rebellion against Arab authority around 740 AD

Meddur Alive, lively

Mennad Common name, unknown origin

Merin Founder of the Merinides dynasty

Misibsen Also Micipsa. King of Numidia (148-118), son of Massensen (Masinissa) and Yugerten (Jugurtha)’s uncle whom he adopted

Munatas Gather around him

Saden Ayt Saden’s tribe

Sifaks Syphax, king of Western Numidia, defeated by Massinissa in 203 BC. Died in Rome in 202 BC,

Tacfin Father of the Almoravide Berber king, Yussuf ben Tashafin

Takfarinas Former Roman legion soldier, who lead a large rebellion (17 - 24 BC).

Tanan Named for an ethnicity

Udad Ram

Ugwistan St. Augustine, Bishop of Hippo (396), the most famous of Christian writers.

Uksintas Yugerten’s son (Jugurtha). Better known as Oxyntas

Usaden Named for a locality

Usem Lightning

Usus Named for a locality

Wimmiden Ours, belongs to all

Winaruz Hope

Winifsan Blooming

Winitran From the stars

Winsen Theirs

Wiwul Of the heart

Wiwurgh Golden

Yani Kabyle tribe from At Yani

Yattuy The tall one

Yuba Name of several Berber kings

Yufayyur Handsomer than the moon

Yufitran Handsomer that the stars

Yufitri Handsomer than a star

Yuften The best, superior

Yugerten Greater than them, the greatest. The origin of the name Jugurtha, king of the Berbers (118 to 105 BC) who fought the Roman armies. He died in a roman jail in 104 BC.

Ziri Moonlight (masculine)

dimanche 17 avril 2011

le verbe manger en tachelhit

sawal tachelhit

Le Présent
En tachelhit, le temps présent exprime normalement deux actions habituelle et progressive.
Action habituelle: je mange du couscous tous les vendredis.
Action progressive: je mange du couscous maintenant.
Il est difficile d'établir des règles pour la formation du temps présent. Il s'agit simplement d'une question de pratique et de l’utilisation. En général, un verbe au présent se composent de "ar" * (qui est l'indicateur actuel, et l’impératif qu'il continue. Pour cette construction, nous ajouter des préfixes et des suffixes.
* A Ourzazate, le présent indicateur (ar) est "da"

Le verbe manger a l’infinitif en tachelhit (cc)=( š)/ impératif simple
continuer à manger ----ctta/ impératif continue
Je mange ----------------- ar ctta
tu manges------------ ----ar tcttat
il mange -----------------ar ictta
elle mange ---------------ar tctta
nous mangeons -----------ar nctta
vous mangez (m, p)-----------ar tcttam
vous mangez (f, p) ---------- ---ar tcttamt
ils mangent (m) ------------------ ar cttan
elle mangent (f)----------------------ar cttant

tashelhit: Present Tense

sawal tachelhit

Present Tense
In tašlнit, the present tense normally expresses both habitual and progressive actions.
habitual action: I eat couscous every Friday.
progressive action: I am eating couscous now.
It is difficult to set up rules for the formation of the present tense. It is merely a matter of practice and
use. Generally, a verb in the present consist of “ar”* , which is the present indicator, and the
imperative continuous as it stem. To this construction we add prefixes and suffixes.
* In Ourzazate, the present indicator is “da

to eat cc (š) (infinitive / imperative simple)
keep eating ----------------ctta (imperative continuous)
I am eating---------------- ar cttaɣ
you are eating------------ ar tcttat
he is eating --------------ar ictta
she is eating-------------- ar tctta
we are eating --------------ar nctta
you are eating (m, p)------------- ar tcttam
you are eating (f, p)-------------- ar tcttamt
they are eating (m)----------------- ar cttan
they are eating (f)----------------- <bar cttant

mardi 29 mars 2011

Vocabulaire tachelhit,français : le corps humain

Vocabulaire tachelhit : le corps humain

Le corps humain :tafgga ;tafkka,ta

Français tachelhit

ongle =========================== iskr
être nu =============================== ḥrḍiḍ
la barbe ======= tamart
la bouche ================================= imi
la cheville ==== tawlẓiḍt
colonne vertébrale ===== sslsul
la cuisse ==== taɣma
la jambe ===== aḍar
la langue ===== ils
la main ===== afus
la moustache ===== cclaɣm
la peau ===== ilm
la poitrine ===== idmaren
la taille ====== tiddi
la tête ====== Ixf,agayyu
le bras ===== iɣil
le cerveau ===== llɣf, malɣf
le cœur, les cœurs ===== ul, ulawen
le corps ====== tafkka,tafgga,tiɣsi
le cou ====== ameggrḍ
le coude ====== aɣnfif
le dos ====== Akrum,tadawt
le foie ====== tasa
le front ====== ignzi
le genou ====== afud
le menton ====== taqqsmart
le nez ===== Inxar,tinzar
le pied ===== aḍar

le rein ==== tigẓẓal
les cheveux ==== azzar
les dents ===== uxsan
les lèvres ===== ifurn,incurn
les orteils ==== Imzgan ,imezzaɣ

les poumons ===== turin
les yeux ==== allen
un os ======= ixṣṣ
une barbe ===== tamart
une cicatrice ==== azmul
une dent ===== axs
une dent de lait ==== taxst n ukfay
une ride ==== akrrac

Vocabulaire tachelhit=== français : le corps humain

angha:=========================== le palais
izdi n tadawt: ================== épine dorsale
aghzdis:======================== côte
ddu tayt: ===================== aisselle
ighil:============================ bras
taghanimt n udar:================= tibia
tawlẓit:========================== cheville
turin: ========================= poumons
ul: ============================= coeur
tasa: =========================== foie
izi:========================== vésicule biliaire
inrfḍ:======================== rate
tigẓẓlt: ==================== rein, rognon
aḍaḍ:======================== doight
tifdnt:====================== orteil
takcrirt:=================== rotule
afud :====================== genou
iskr:======================= ongle
abuḍ:====================== nombril
idmarn:==================== poitrine

lundi 28 mars 2011

grammaire_syntaxe_ lexique de tachelhit

Grammaire - Syntaxe

Dans la syntaxe de base, la caractéristique la plus marquante est indiscutablement la généralisation de la phrase nominale àcopule verbale g “faire / être” (g + nominal a l`état libre). Ce type de syntagme prédicatif, bien attesté dans tout le Maroc, est connu a l`état de traces en kabyle et touareg; en tachelhit, il est d`un emploi très généralisé et semble avoir remplacé de manière systématique les séquences à auxiliaires de prédication d (d + nominal) bien connues dans tout le reste du berbère nord mais qui ne sont plus attestées qu'à l`état résiduel en chleuh, notamment en contexte négatif. On y relève ainsi: iga aderghal = “il est aveugle / mal voyant” mais au négatif “ur igi aderghal” coexiste avec la phrase purement nominale “ur d aderghal”.

Parmi les traits morphologiques caractéristiques, on relèvera également le maintien de l'accord de nombre du participe verbal que la plupart des autres dialectes berbères nord tendent a traiter comme forme invariable: “iddan” (sing), ddanin (plur.), participe du verbe “ddu” (aller). En revanche, le chleuh, comme l`ensemble du Maroc, a complètement abandonné l'ancienne conjugaison par suffixes des verbes d'état qui, ici, se combine avec le jeux “standard” des indices de personnes.

Mais c'est sans doute au niveau du système verbal que la tachelhit présente les spécificités les plus marquantes; on peut même le considérer comme l'un des systèmes les plus évolués de l`ensemble berbère. Evolution au niveau des signifiants,
- avec la constitution d'une nouvelle forme par association obligatoire de la particule “ar” à l'aoriste intensif (ar iteddu, “il va”)
- avec une forte tendance (notamment dans le Souss) a perdre le thème de prétérit négatif (“ theme en /i/”), et surtout,
- avec la dissociation et la démultiplication des formes issues du complexe “ad” + aoriste: “rad” (issu de “ira ad”) a valeur temporelle (futur) s'oppose désormais a “ad” (à valeur modale) et des formes de futur immédiat se sont constituées dans de nombreuses régions à partir de complexe “ddu” (“aller”) + ad + Aoriste) ( > ddad + aoriste).

Et bien sûr, corrélativement, au niveau des signifiés et du fonctionnement global du système, avec la “naissance” du temps (Leguil, Cf Bibl.), induite par la distinction entre le modal (ad) et le temporel (rad / ddad), et par la généralisation de la valeur de concomitance (donc de présent) du complexe “ar” + aoriste intensif. Le système verbal chleuh est ainsi celui qui, le plus nettement, a introduit la temporalité dans un système primitivement aspectuel. (Cf “Aspect” EB)


Le lexique chleuh, bien que présentant une forte influence de l'arabe comme tout le berbère nord est néanmoins l'un des moins contaminés : le taux d'emprunts a l'arabe, établi a partir d'une liste diagnostic, est de l'ordre de 25 %, bien inférieur a celui des dialectes méditerranéens (kabyle: 38 %) (Chaker 1984).

Le chleuh (du moins un certain nombre de ses parlers) est également l'un des rares dialectes a avoir conservé l`ancienne numération berbère, bien que dans les zones de contacts intenses (notamment urbaines), la numération arabe ait tendance a se répendre.

Études linguistiques et développements récents

Le chleuh a été l'un des dialectes les plus étudiés par la tradition berbérisante occidentale; a la fin des années 1920, on disposait déjà de travaux descriptifs et de corpus importants (Stumme, Destaing, Laoust, Justinard). Il a connu un tres vif regain d'intérêt depuis une vingtaine d'années du fait de la formation rapide d'une nouvelle génération de berbérisants marocains, qui sont, dans une large proportion, originaires du domaine chleuh. Ces travaux récents, totalement intégrés dans les grands courants de la linguistique actuelle (l'influence du générativisme notamment y est très forte) se sont d'abord intéressés a la morpho-syntaxe, puis plus récemment au lexique et a la phonologie.

Ce développement vigoureux de la recherche sur la langue et la littérature chleuh est, dans une certaine mesure, relayé par le dynamisme de la société civile chleuh, notamment soussie : la plupart des publications berbères, scientifiques ou culturelles, parues au Maroc depuis 20 ans sont l'oeuvre de Chleuhs; de même, les associations culturelles les plus actives et les plus efficaces sont pour l`instant presque toutes chleuh. Le dynamisme et l'efficacité de l'Association de l`Université d'été d'Agadir, qui a déjà organisé quatre rencontres importantes depuis 1980, mérite tout particulierement d'être signalés.

vendredi 25 mars 2011

tashelhit verbs and preposition

tashelhit subject affixes

1s ...
2s t-...-t
3sm i-...
3sf t-...
1p n-...
2pm t-...-m
2pf t-...-mt
3pm ...-n
3pf ...-nt

Verbs carry the person, number and gender information of their subject in the form of affixes. There are four inflectional forms of the verb[citation needed], traditionally called aorist, preterite, negative preterite and intensive[citation needed]. The basic opposition is between the aorist, a non-past form which lacks further tense information, and the preterite which often conveys past tense. The intensive (usually called inaccomplit in French) encodes habitual and/or durative/continuative aspect. It is often preceded by a particle ar, for instance in ar ttsisn waman (lit. ar cook:3pm:INT water:EA) 'the water is cooking'[nb 8]. In texts, a sequence of aorist verb forms usually follows after the initial setting of tense by an imperfect or intensive verb form.
A relative form of the verb, usually called participle, is used in relative clauses. It looks like the preterite form of the verb, with affixes added for person and number: i-...-n for 3rd person singular (y-...-n with vowel-initial verbs), and -in for 3rd person plural. For example, the relative forms of ili 'to be' (with preterite form lli) are illan and llanin for singular and plural, respectively. A singular imperative consists of the bare form of the verb without any affixes (fssa! 'be silent, sg'); in the plural, the imperative distinguishes between masculine and feminine by means of the affixes -at and -amu, respectively.
Stative verbs, verbs expressing qualities, are characterized by initial i- in the aorist, e.g. imɣur 'be big (aorist)', imim 'be sweet (aorist)', ili 'be, exist (aorist)'. The aorist form of stative verbs usually has a subjunctive or counter-factual reading, whereas the preterite form (characterized by gemination of the consonant, e.g. lli/lla 'be (pret.)') generally is used to express a (current) state of affairs, e.g. llan islman ɣ isaffn (be:PRET:3pm fish:pm in river) 'there are fishes in the river'. Shilha has only few simple adjectives; the most common adjectival construction is the relative form of a stative verb, as in argaz imqquṛn (man PTC:sg:m-be.big-PTC:sg:m) 'big man'.
Derived verb forms exist: a causative s, medial m (or nasal), and passive tt... can be recognized, as in muddu 'travel' from ddu go' + medial, or smugr 'meet each other' from gr 'touch' + causative + medial. However, derivation is no longer productive, i.e. speakers no longer consciously produce causatives, medials, or passives by applying derivative morphology to verbs.
Most prepositions have a short and a long form. The long form is used with pronominal suffixes, and the short form is used in all other contexts, e.g. nniga-s 'on top of him/her', nnig- tgmmi 'on top of the house'. A common colocation is s-dar 'to' as in s-dar tgmmi 'to the house'. Most of the prepositions require the following noun to be in the état d'annexion; only ar 'until' and some prepositions of Arabic origins such as bɛd 'after' and qbl 'before' are exceptions to this rule. Examples: ddu tafukt 'under the sun (EA)', ɣ wayyur n šuttanbir 'in the month (EA) September', ifškan n tgmmi 'the things of the house (EA)', s wuzzal 'by means of the iron (EA)', but ar assf n ljaza 'until the Day (EL) of Judgment', qbl iḍ 'before the night (EL)'.
Shilha prepositions (v.d. Boogert 1997:284)

short form long form translation equivalent
d id- 'with, in the company of'
dar dar- 'at, by'
ddu ddaw-, ddawa- 'beneath, under'
f flla- 'on; because of'
gr gra- 'between'
ɣ gi-, gig- 'in'
i a- 'for, to'
n nn- 'of'
nnig nniga- 'on top of'
s is- 'with, by means of'
zɣ zgi-, zgig- 'from'
s sr- 'to'
ar — 'until'

tashelhit pronouns

tachelhit,tashelhit,shilha Grammar


Shilha pronouns distinguish between male and female gender in both singular and plural forms of the second and third person. There are several sets of pronouns, each for different contexts. Five common paradigms are given below. The first paradigm of possessive pronouns is used for some specific associative relations such as kinship terms (e.g. baba-k 'your (m) father', baba-tnɣ 'our father') and spatial relation terms, as in ɣ-eddaw-s 'its underpart' (lit. in-under-its). The second set of possessive pronouns consists of the preposition nn 'of' and the first paradigm, e.g. tigmmi-nn-k [təɡəmːinːək] 'your (f) house' (lit. house of you), aydi-nn-sn [æjdinːəsən] 'their (m) dog' (lit. dog of them (m)). The 3sm independent pronoun ntta 'he' may be shortened to ntt. The 3sf direct object pronoun appears as stt after a dental stop, e.g. krfat stt 'shackle her!' and also after the particle 'ad'. The 1s possessive pronoun has several allomorphs; after a consonant, the form inu is used and after a vowel the form nu. The final u is realized as w when followed by a vowel-initial word.

Some pronominal paradigms in Shilha[21] Independent Direct object Indirect object Possessive 1 Possessive 2
1s nkk(in) yyi -yyi -ø (i)nu
2sm kyy(in) k a-k -k nn-k
2sf kmm(in) km a-m -m nn-m
3sm ntta(n) t a-s -s nn-s
3sf nttat (tt a-s -s nn-s
1p nkkwni a-(n)ɣ a-(n)ɣ -t-nɣ nn-ɣ
2pm kwnni kwn a-wn -t-un nn-un
2pf kwnnimti kwnt a-wnt -t-unt nn-unt
3pm n(it)tni tn a-sn -t-sn nn-sn
3pf n(i)tnti tnt a-snt -t-snt nn-snt

s = singular, p = plural, m = male, f = female, ø = zero morpheme.


Nouns are marked for gender, number, and case. There are two genders, masculine and feminine. There are several ways to mark plurality in Shilha. Common plural formations are:

* the affixation of i-…-n for masculine nouns starting in a, or ti-…-in for feminine nouns starting with ta-, e.g. a-fullus 'rooster, cock' > i-fullus-n or ta-gan-t 'forest' > ti-gan-in.
* several kinds of vowel change, for example a…a…u > i…u…a (a-gayyu 'head' > i-guyya) or
* in ethnonyms and loanwords, prefixation of the word id or ida, (id-bllarj 'storks' < Gr. pelargos; ida ssur 'walls' < Arabic, ida wsmlal 'the Ida Ousemlal people' < asmlal sg.). The use of ida is a characteristic feature of poetic language. Sometimes a combination of vowel change and affixation is used, e.g. ilf 'wild boar' > alfiwn or ass 'day' > ussan. Double consonants are often shortened and single consonants doubled, e.g. a-fus 'hand' > i-fass-n, a-gllid 'king' > i-gld-an.

Shilha nouns come in two cases, commonly called état libre (EL) and état d'annexion (EA), that are marked by prefixes. A noun appears in the état d'annexion in a number of syntactic contexts. The most important among these is when the noun occurs as a subject in postverbal position, e.g. isu wa-gʷmar 'the horse (a-gʷmar) drinks', y-azzl wu-ššn 'the jackal (u-ššn) runs', or tnwa t-fiyyi 'the meat (ti-fiyyi) is cooked, done'. Nouns are also in the état d'annexion after numerals and most prepositions: sin wu-lawn 'two hearts (u-lawn, sg. ul)', tamart n u-rgaz 'beard of the man (a-rgaz)', ifta s dar t-mɣart 'he went to the woman (ta-mɣart)'.

In most other cases, nouns have the état libre or unmarked case; this is also the form in which the noun would appear in a dictionary. Nouns starting with u or tu in the état libre have wu and tu in the état d'annexion. Other forms cannot simply be predicted from the unmarked form, cf. for example a-fus (EL), u-fus (EA) 'hand' but a-fud (EL), wa-fud (EA) 'knee', and ta-gra (EL), t-gra (EA) 'bowl' but ta-ɣla (EL), ta-ɣla (EA) 'lamb'. Another term for the état d'annexion is état construit or construct state.

dimanche 6 mars 2011

expressions en tachelhit

expressions utiles en tachelhit
useful phrases in tashelhit

Oui = Yes----------------yah,ya.
Non = No----------------uhu.
Merci = Thank you--------tanmmirt

Merci beaucoup = Thank you very much---------tanmmirt nk bahra

de rien, je vous en prie = You're welcome------ f umya

S'il vous plaît = Please------------εafak
excusez-moi = Excuse me---------surf yyi
Bonjour = Hello----------------------azul
Au revoir = Goodbye-----------------nujjak ɣ ufra
à bientôt = See you soon------------ ar taklit yaḍn

Bonjour = Good morning------------tifawin , azul
Bon après-midi = Good afternoon-------------azul
Bonsoir = Good evening----------------timensiwen
Bonne nuit = Good night---------------timensiwen

Je ne comprends pas = I don't understand----------------ur ssnɣ ma-d tnnit
Comment dit-on X en enfrancais ? = How do you say X in English?
Manik as a nttini (x) s ( tfransist,tnglizt)

Parlez-vous ... = Do you speak ...------is a tsawalt …
anglais = English-----------tinglizt
français = French-----------tafransist
allemand = German--------talimant
espagnol = Spanish---------tasbbalyunt

Comment vous appelez-vous? Quel est votre nom? = What is your name?
Ma-d ak ism ?

Enchanté (de faire votre connaissance). = Nice to meet you----s waddur

Comment allez-vous? Ça va? = How are you?----manik ann tgit ?
bien, bon = Good------ifulki, iḥla
mal, mauvais = Bad------ixwcn, ur iḥli
Comme ci comme ça = So so----- ɣik-ad d ɣik-ad

une femme, une épouse = a wife-----yat tmɣart
le mari = Husband------------argaz
la fille = Daughter-------------tafruxt,tarbit,taḥcmit
le fils = Son------------------afrux, aḥcmi
la mère, maman = Mother---------tafqqirt,mas n…
le père, papa = Father-------------bab,babas n…,afqqir
un ami, une amie = Friend---------ameddakwl